taken from PolishRoots Galician Research:
Galicia is the
given name to that partition of Poland which was occupied
by the Austro-Hungarian Empire between 1772-1918.
Consequently, as a foreign provincial name, imposed upon
the Polish subjects of many different areas, Galicia is
no longer recognized on the administrative maps of the
Polish Republic as a county, province nor region.
However, since the major migration to America occurred
during the period of Germanic occupation, family records
may often mislead the novice researcher by listing an
ancestor's place of origin as "Austria" or the
elusive "Galicia". Galicia, in particular, is
recognized and referred to extensively in the Immigration
Passenger Lists as Austrian Poland.
The full name of the province was "Galizien und
Lodomerien" in German, or "Galicia et
Lodomeria" in the Latinized form. The name is
derived from two ancient duchies, Halychyna and Volhynia,
which served as buffer states between the southeastern
Polish frontier and the Kievan State, until their
absorption by Poland in the 14th century.