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Naples (Italy)

Napoli
Flag of the City of Naples

It was reported that the Marchisate of Montferrato used a red over white flag. The Old Kingdom of Naples used the Catalan bars. After 1735 it was part of Kingdom of Two Sicilies. This strange ensign is showed in many plates. Jaume Olle' 25 October 1998 In Kramers' Geographisch Woordenboek, 1883: 'Montferrat, old marchisate in North Italy, now included in the province Turin. Capital Casale.' (now Casale Monferrato) Republic Partenopea was proclaimed in South Italia (in territory of Dos Sicilias) In 1798 under French influence (the Borbons retain Sicily). It was retake by the Borbons in 1799 and until 1806, when the Kingdom of Naples was created, attributed to Murat. A white, red and black flag is reported. According Zigiotto, no evidence of flag exists, and the French flag is supposed to be in use. In 1806 Naples was under French occupation, and the crown was assigned to Giuseppe Bonaparte. A white, red and black horizontal flag is reported (also quoted in vertical) but Zigiotto suggest that from the documentation found only the use of French flag can be assured.

In 1808 Giuseppe was called to the Spanish throne and the crown was assigned to Joachim Murat. A flag with the quoted colors white, red and black was adopted soon.

In 1811 Murat changed the flag. The new design was clearly under French influence. Naples 1811 - blue bordered Red-White or White-Red, with shield. The flag that Jaume describe in his 5 June 1997 post is the state flag 1811-1815; the civil ensign was without the arms. Merchant flag adopted 1811.Naples Province flag: antique gold ("oro antico")with the CoA in the middle.

NAPLES (Historic Centre of), Italy

Location and site: In Italy's Campania region, 185-km. southwest of Rome, Naples is situated at the foot of Mount Vesuvius in the midst of a volcanic area at the rear of the Bay of Naples. Beyond a series of islands and peninsulas is The Tyrrhenean Sea.
Foundation: 5th century BC Historic function(s): Culture, industry and port.
Administrative status: Capital of Campania and chief city of the province.

HISTORY

  • The Greeks of Cumae following the naval battle, which put an end to the Etruscans’ ambition to dominate the Tyrrhenean Sea, founded Neapolis. A wall surrounds it. Although conquered by the Romans in 327 BC, the city maintained good relations with Athens.

  • Russian principalities fell under the yoke of the Golden Horde and Moscow became the victim of a Mongol invasion in 1238.

  • The Kremlin was severely damaged and was reconstructed immediately.

  • Although Byzantine General Belisaire took it in 537, Naples, a dependency of Ravenna, resisted the Lombards.

  • It attained autonomy in 763 and later became the capital of a Byzantine duchy. The city developed around two nodes: the Bishop's Palace and the ducal palace.

  • In 1140 Naples was integrated into the Kingdom of Sicily under the Normans. In 1189 it became part of the

  • Hohenstaufen Kingdom. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily founded a university there in 1224.

  • At the Pope's incentive, Charles I of Anjou, who was the King of Sicily from 1265 until 1285, put an end to the

  • Hohenstaufen domination of Naples and relocated the capital from Palermo to Naples. Under the authority of

  • Anjou, Naples enjoyed two centuries of prosperity. The Castel Nuovo was constructed in 1279 and several Gothic churches were erected.

  • The succession of the Aragon Dynasty in 1442 and especially that of King Ferdinand I were followed by a period of architectural and urban achievements.

  • After being ruled by the French, then becoming a province of the Spanish Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries, Naples became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860.

URBAN MORPHOLOGY

Throughout the long history of Naples, the fortifications were enlarged, reinforced and updated; in places, the original Wall is still visible. From the time of ancient Neapolis, some of the east-west roads have survived, and today these form, With the transversal roads, a series of blocks running perpendicular to the slope. Elsewhere in the city, an irregular network and the orthogonal layout testify to the medieval and Spanish eras in its history. Other urban features of Naples,such as the Piazza del Mercato, which dates to the 19th century, reflect its more recent period.

This exceptional urban framework also includes major monuments and sites, including the Castel Nuovo and its triumphal arch near the port, the "Charteuse" of Saint Martin on the Vomero Hill and the Villa Floridiana at the edge of the city. The city's religious and secular architecture illustrates a succession of styles, including Romanesque, provincial Gothic, Catalan, Tuscany, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical and Neoclassical. Sprinkled with religious buildings adorned rich interiors, the urban fabric is extremely dense.

INSCRIPTION CRITERIA (1995)

Naples is one of the oldest European cities whose present-day urban fabric conserves the elements of its long history, Which was rich with events. The layout of its streets and the richness of its historic buildings dating to numerous periods,

Famous People: Salvatore di Giacomo (poet, 1860-1934), Lorenzo Bernini (sculptor and architect, 1598-1680),Gaetano Filangieri (philosopher, 1752-1788), Enrico De Nicola (politician, 1877-1959), Enrico Caruso (opera singer,1873-1921), Domenico Scarlatti (composer, 1685-1757), Giovan Battista Vico (philosopher, 1688-1744), Eduardo De Filippo (actor and playwright, 1900-1984), Luigi Vanvitelli (architect, 1700-1773).

In the Province: Torre del Greco (Coral Museum), Nola (Antiquarium), Sorrento (Museo `Correale di Terranova'), Torre Annunziata, Portici (Botanic Gardens), Pozzuoli, Casoria, Vico Equense, Massa Lubrense, Ischia, Capri, Pompeii (Museo Vesuviano).

Avellino (CAMPANIA)

The town lies 348 m. above sea level in a wide green valley in the Irpinia uplands. An ancient Irpinian centre, it submitted to Rome in 209 AD. becoming a Roman colony and busy agricultural and trading centre. Severely damaged during the war between Goths and Byzantine, it was rebuilt by the Lombards after the fall of the Roman Empire, on its present site only a few kilometers from the original settlement, and grew in importance to become the capital of a County. Conquered by the Normans at the beginning of the 12th century, it shared the vicissitudes of the Kingdom of Naples, though the fief of various overlords; those who held it for the longest periods of time were the Dell'Aquilas (12th century), the Del Balzos (12th-14th centuries) and the Caracciolo family, whose rule lasted from 1581 to 1806. Avellino became part of Italy in 1860.
Throughout its history, terrible earthquakes, the last of which have plagued the town, in November 1980, caused severe damage to the town centre. As a result, there are now few ancient monuments. These are the Duomo, of Romanesque origins, with later additions, the Palazzo della Dogana, medieval, reconstructed in the Seicento, and the 17th century Palazzo Caracciolo. The nearby Montevergine Sanctuary attracts large numbers of visitors. The economy of the town is still based on agricultural activities and livestock, for which it is a busy marketing centre. In the service sector, public administration offers considerable employment, but industry is still underdeveloped. Small factories produce foods, textiles and furniture.
Famous People: Guido Dorso (expert on southern Italy, 1892-1947), Augusto Guerriero-Ricciardetto (journalist, 1893-1981).
In the Province: Ariano Irpino (holiday resort, agricultural and industrial centre), Solofra (of environmental interest), Bagnoli Irpino (holiday resort, ski facilities at Piano Laceno), Avella (famous for its hazel nuts, Roman remains), Mercogliano (Museo del Santuario).

Benevento (CAMPANIA)

Benevento stands 135 m. above sea level in a vast hollow in the Samnite hills, near the confluence of the Sabato and Calore rivers. This ancient Samnite town was the scene of the Roman victory (275 BC.) over Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, and the Romans changed its name from Maleventum to Beneventum (Lat. bene-good). A few years later it was a Roman colony and the town, lying at the crossroads of important consular ways, grew rapidly in size. The Goths and Byzantine fought over it after the fall of the Empire, but (in 571) it was seized by the Lombards, who made it capital of an important duchy. Under Arechi II, who gave himself a princely title, Benevento reached its greatest splendor. In 839, the principality was split with the creation of that of Salerno. At the beginning of the 11th century, after the death of the last prince, Landolfo V, the Church and the Normans struggled for possession of the town which, together with a small part of the surrounding territory, became part of the Papal States in 1077 and remained under Papal rule until the unification of Italy in 1860. Its monuments include: Trajan's Arch (114 AD.), one of the best conserved Roman triumphal arches, the Roman theatre (2nd century AD.), Duomo (of medieval origin, 13th century façade), S. Sofia church (8th century, coeval frescoes), and adjacent cloisters (12th century), Rocca dei Rettori (14th century).

The economy of Benevento, chief town of a depressed province, is still partly based on agriculture, animal husbandry and related activities. The industrial sector consists of food (liqueurs, cakes), engineering, construction materials, wood and leather processing.

Famous People: Filippo Raguzzini (architect, c. 1680-1771), Emanuele Caggiano (sculptor, 1837-1905), Clemente Romano (surgeon, 1847-1927), Angelo Catone (doctor and philosopher, 1440-1496), San Gennaro (3rd-4th centuries, bishop and patron saint of Naples).

In the Province: Guardia Sanframondi (Procession of the Flagellants every seven years), Telese (spa, remains of Roman city, Telesia), Sant'Agata dei Goti (Holy Week Procession).

Caserta (CAMPANIA)

Caserta stands 65 m. above sea level on the edge of the fertile Campanian lowlands, at the foot of the Campania Preapennines. Founded in 1752 round the monumental Palace, the old village of Caserta Vecchia of Lombard origin, built on a hill some ten kilometers from the present town, was gradually abandoned. It was at Teano in the Province of Caserta that the historical encounter between Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi took place on 26th October 1860, marking the unification of Italy under the House of Savoy. Caserta's greatest attraction is the majestic Palazzo Reale, built for King Charles of Bourbon by the great architect Luigi Vanvitelli. Vanvitelli’s son Carlo finished the colossal work, begun in 1752, in 1774. The Palace (247 m.×184 m., 41 m. in height) has 1,200 rooms and a richly decorated interior. Its immense park (120 hectares) has a wealth of artistic fountains ornamented with splendid statuary and waterfalls that gently ripple down the hill. Especially beautiful is the Grande Cascata, a 78 m. high cascade. Important in Caserta Vecchia are the cathedral (12th century, Siculo-Norman style) with its 13th century campanile (Gothic), and the little church of the Annunziata (12th century, Gothic).

In the neighbourhood, the village of S. Leucio, built by Ferdinand IV of Bourbon as a silkmaking centre, has an interesting structure. Caserta's economy is still based on agriculture and allied activities, and on an industrial sector operating at little more than craft level, in food (oil mills, pasta, canning), textile, engineering, tobacco, wood and glass manufacturing.

Famous People: Leonardo Santoro (storiographer, 1474-1569), Pasquale Battistessa (politician, 1769-1799), Francesco Saverio Correro (jurist, 1812-1895).

In the Province: Aversa (Museo di San Francesco), Mondragone (seaside resort, spa), Baia Domizia (seaside resort), Sessa Aurunca (environmental interest, historical parade, September), Capua (Museo Campano), S. Maria Capua Vetere (Antiquarium, Museo del Risorgimento), Roccamonfina (nearby Sanctuary of S. Maria dei Lattani, fine cloisters).

Salerno (CAMPANIA)

The town lies at the centre of the Gulf, at the mouth of the Irno River valley, not far from Piana del Sele towards which it is rapidly expanding. Probably of Etruscan origin, it was a Roman colony in 197 BC. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Lombards conquered it by the Goths, Byzantine and, in 646,, who annexed it to the duchy of Benevento.

In 839 it became the capital of an independent Lombard principality and later raided by the Saracens. Robert Guiscard, the Norman ruler, conquered Salerno in 1077, making it the capital of his dominions; the foundation of the famous Scuola Medica Salernitana (school of medicine) enhanced its importance. Under the Swabian rulers, it declined with the growing importance of Naples, and in the 15th century the Angevins granted it in feud to the Colonna family, then later to the Orsinis, Sanseverinos and Grimaldis. It shared the fortunes of Naples after 1590 until the unification of Italy. The city is structured in three distinct nuclei: the medieval part, on the slopes behind the coast, characterized by narrow winding streets, the eighteenth century area beyond the old walls, and the modern town, built after the Second World War, mainly towards the south, often in a haphazard sprawl. The monuments include the Duomo (11th century) built by Robert Guiscard, beside the fine Romanesque campanile, inside are two outstanding magnificently mosaic ambos (pulpits) dating to the 12th and 13th centuries; the Romanesque portal, known as the `Porta dei Leoni' (11th century) is also of interest; the church of S. Maria delle Grazie (end 15th century), church of S. Giorgio (Baroque), Palazzo Pinto (12th century), the medieval aqueduct, Arechi Castle (Byzantine), with a fine view of the city. Salerno's economy, facilitated by the lines of communication, is based on the marketing of provincial agricultural products, on maritime activities and on banking. Industry has developed in the food, engineering, textiles and ceramics sectors. There is a high proportion of tourist trade.

Famous People: Tommaso Guardati, `Masuccio Salernitano' (novelist, 15th century), Andrea Sabatini, `Andrea da Salerno' (artist, c. 1480-1530), Giovanni Amendola (politician, 1886-1926).

In the Province: Battipaglia (agricultural and industrial centre), Cava de' Tirreni (Disfida dei Trombonieri, Corpus Domini, nearby Trinity Abbey), Nocera Inferiore (Archeological Museum), Amalfi (Museo della Carta), Ravello, Positano, Bagni Contursi (spa), Padula (Archeological Museum of west Lucania), Vietri (Museo della Ceramica).

 

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