The present day Basilicata, (Southern Italy)
which includes the provinces of Potenza and Matera, is also commonly referred to
as Lucania. The name Lucania derives from its prehistoric people, the
Lyki. The government has now reconfirmed Basilicata as the region's
official name.In early times Greek settlers brought to the region their
culture, art and philosophy.
The Lucanians, sought to rebel against
Rome but the Romans reacted with bloody repressions, and the region up until
then had known periods of considerable splendor, was depopulated and deserted.
Potenza was destroyed by Frederick II, and
was rebuilt by Bishop Oberto in 1250, to be destroyed again by Charles of Anjou.
Life here between the 14th and 17th centuries
was marked by continual struggles by the lower classes against the feudal barons
and the governing authorities for possessions of the land, the only asset sought
after in all ranks of society.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the ruling
classes remained deaf to the demands of the peasants. The lower classes of
Basilicata were reduced to such misery that many turned to banditry; nor did the
often bloody repression of the outlaws contribute in any way to the
solution of the region's problems. Only since World War II have land
reforms begun to break up the large holdings, and Basilicata remains Italy's
poorest and most backward region.
On December 21, 1857,
Potenza was greatly
damaged by an earthquake.
San Martino d'agri, small reality of the province of Potenza in Lucania is a country with approximately 1,000 souls. Took this name between sec. XI-XII d.c. when the cult of the patron saint of the poor it spread widely in Europe.
You think that the country has more remote sources according to archaeological findings in some local sites, of Roman origin dated II-I centuries b.c. which would result should the exodus of the population of Grumentum following the attack.
The real urban facility in the country dates back to the IX-X century. a.d. when monks coming from East settled here their Kenobi around which there arose the built-up area. Monks convent centuries founded the still existing binding for the beauty of the frescos of the cloister and for an extraordinary wooden choir of inestimable beauty and value.
In the following centuries San Martino followed the historical fate of the rest of the South, by the various dominations foreign: Normans, Swabians, and Bourbons; until the creation of the Kingdom of Naples under Spanish domination of sec XVI-XVII, when he became a fief of Sanseverino family property of Bisignano, one of the most powerful families of Neapolitan. These held until the end of XVII cent. When there was a serious crisis of feudal system that forced the Sanseverino to surrender it along with other feuds to cope with the accumulated debt. Thus passed into the hands of Sifola, wealthy family pugliese, there he bullied, from top of baronial Palace that still retains the name until the end of the feudalitÓ. Estranged feared "gentlemen" the country passed into the hands of families more powerful that continued to speculate on the rest of the population already exhausting themselves as the peasant living conditions.
The discontent of the population had facilitated and promoted the great migration towards the Americas that led to a drastic reduction of the inhabitants, by 4000 1896 to 1300 of 1929.
In the years that followed San Martino has faced the same problems as the rest of Italy, distinguishing himself again for a sustained immigration flows, this time to the North of Italy, stream, which still is alive and is one of the most serious problems of the country.